Jantar Mantar Observatory, Jaipur

An array of large architectural astronomical instruments used for measuring time and tracking celestial objects across the sky, Jantar Mantar,  Jaipur is one of the 5 Monuments build by Rajput King Sawai Jai Singh II in India.

Located in the Old City, between the City Palace and Hawa Mahal, City Palace, Jantar Mantar is a compilation of 19 architectural astronomical instruments and was completed in 1738 CE &  features the world’s biggest stone sundial “Smarat Yantra”, and is UNESCO World heritage site.

The term “Jantar Mantar” literally means “instruments for measuring the harmony of the heavens”.

Jantar Mantar has mainly 19 different instruments in which are used for different operations. They are- Chakra Yantra, Dakshin Bhitti Yantra, Digamsha Yantra, Disha Yantra, Dhruva Darshak Pattika, Jai Prakash Yantra, Kapali Yantra, Kanali Yantra, Kranti Vritta Yantra, Laghu Samrat Yantra, Misra Yantra, Nadi Valaya Yantra, Palbha Yantra, Rama Yantra, Rashi Valaya Yantra, Shashtansh Yantra, Unnatamsa Yantra, Vrihat Samrat Yantra, and Yantra Raj Yantra.

The Instruments

Vrihat Smarat Yantra

The Vrihat Samrat yantra is a sundial that can give the local time to an accuracy of 2 seconds.  It is the largest sundial ever built with an arm 22.6 meter high and largest quadrants of radius 15.5 meter.

Small Smarat Yantra

The small samrat yantra is a sundial that can give the time to an accuracy of 20 seconds. The shadow of the triangular wall of the yantra, falls on the eastern & western side quadrants, to tell the local time.


Unnatamsa is an instrument for measuring the altitude and height of an object in the sky.


Rasivalaya are instruments for measuring the celestial latitude and longitude of the celestial bodies. There are twelve instruments which represent the twelve signs of the zodiac, one for each measurement to be done when the corresponding sign of the zodiac transits the meridian.

Jaya prakash yantra

The representation of a half celestial sphere rim represents horizon for finding all the positions of the heavenly bodies.


The nadivalaya has two circular plates, facing north and south which are its dials. The walls of the plates are inclined towards the south at such an angle that the instrument remains parallel to the plane of the Earth’s equator.

Chakra yantra

The chakra yantra is a ring instrument which measures the global co-ordinates of declination and the hour angle of a celestial object.

Ram Yantra

The Ram Yantra can measure the local co-ordinates of altitude and azimuth of a celestial object.

Rama yantra A

This gives the altitude and azimuth of the sun and of the heavenly bodies.

Karnti writta

The use of this instrument is to find the declination and distance from the ecliptic and equinox of the sun and stars.


The krantivrtta is an instrument that is meant to measure the celestial latitude and celestial longitude of an object in the sky. It is also used for measuring solar sign of the sun in daytime.

Yantra Raj

The yantra raj is an adaptation of an astrolabe a medieval instrument for the measurement of time and the positions of celestial objects.

The great minds behind these instruments are of Aryabhatta, Varahamihira, Brahmagupta, Lalla, Sripati, and Bhaskara. The theories behind all these instruments are found in ancient texts. It shows that India was far ahead than other countries in ancient times in science.

Location: Gangori Bazaar, J.D.A. Market, Pink City, Jaipur, Rajasthan 302002

Visit Timings: 9:00 AM to 5:00 PM

Visit Duration: About 45 minutes

Ticket Price: 50 to 200 INR

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